Assisted reproductive treatments Pre-implantation genetic diagnostic of the embryo (DGP)

This technology enables us to detect possible alterations in the embryos before the embryo transfer. It is a great help in certain determined conditions.

The DPG is the analysis of chromosome and genetic alterations in the embryo before its transfer to the mother. It enables us to find embryos without any chromosome or genetic mutation defects.

The objective of this analysis is to guaranty a safe transfer. To perform the DGP, it is necessary to perform an In Vitro Fertilization treatment with ICSI or IMSI. Three days after the micro-injection, the embryos have 6-8 cells. We sample one cell on each of them, and we analyze it by molecular biological techniques to put aside the embryos presenting any genetic defect.

This technique is recommended in the following cases:

  • Autosomal hereditary diseases or diseases related to sexual chromosomes such as: Huntington’s disease, fragile X syndrome, Myotonic dystrophy, Marfan Syndrome, Retinoschisis, Hemophilia A, Cystic fibrosis, Beta-thalassemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Polycystic kidney disease and others.
  • Structural chromosome alterations, such as translocations or inversions.
  • Repeated abortions. In 50% of cases, the cause resides in the embryo and not in the couple. The DGP, with the help of the FISH technique is used to select the embryos free of defect (analysis of 9 chromosomes: X, Y, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21 and 22), which increases the chances of a successful pregnancy.
  • Failures prior to the FIV. The embryos may show a normal external aspect, even if they contain genetic alterations that may prevent the implantation and ensure the success of the treatment. The DGP is used to select a more accurate embryo.
  • Advanced age of the mother.
  • Male factor: alterations revealed by the FISH analysis, meiosis, DNA fragmentation.
Last Update: 08/09/2014
References:
– Matorras R, Hernández J (eds): Estudio y tratamiento de la pareja estéril: Recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Fertilidad, con la colaboración de la Asociación Española para el Estudio de la Biología de la Reproducción, de la Asociación Española de Andrología y de la Sociedad Española de Contracepción. Adalia, Madrid 2007.
The Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis International Society: guidelines for good practice in PGD. Reprod Biomed Online 2004;9:430-4.
– Geraedts JP, Harper J, Braude P, Sermon K, Veiga A, Gianaroli L, Agan N, Munne S, Gitlin S, Blenow E, de Boer K, Hussey N, Traeger-Synodinos J, Lee SH, Vivi- lle S, Krey L, Ray P, Emiliani S, Liu YH, Vermeulen S. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a collabo- rative activity of clinical genetic departments and IVF centres. Prenat Diagn 2001;21:1086-92.
– Thornhill AR, deDie-Smulders CE, Geraedts JP, Har- per JC, Harton GL, Lavery SA, Moutou C, Robinson MD, Schmutzler AG, Scriven PN, Sermon KD, Wilton L; ESHRE PGD Consortium. ESHRE PGD Consortium ‘Best Practice guidelines for clinical Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) and Preimplantation Gene- tic Screening (PGS)’. Hum Reprod 2005;20:35-48.